March 25, 2023

PHILIPPINES: The Filipino People Before the Arrival of the Spaniards
PHILIPPINES: The Filipino People Before the Arrival of the Spaniards
Position of Tribes.—On the arrival of the Spaniards, the population of the Philippines seems to have been distributed…

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PHILIPPINES: The Filipino Other folks Faster than the Arrival of the Spaniards

PHILIPPINES: The Filipino Other folks Faster than the Arrival of the Spaniards

Position of Tribes.—On the arrival of the Spaniards, the population of the Philippines seems to were allocated by means of tribes in so much the identical method as at present. Then, as now, the Bisaya occupied the central islands of the archipelago and one of the most an important northern coast of Mindanao. The Bicol, Tagálog, and Pampango were within the identical parts of Luzon as we find them to-day. The Ilocano occupied the coastal plain going in the course of the China Sea, on the other hand for the reason that arrival of the Spaniards they have expanded considerably and their settlements are in truth a large number of in Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, and the valley of the Cagayan.

The Selection of Other folks.—The ones tribes which to-day amount as regards to 7,000,000 souls, at the time of Magellan’s discovery were, nearly indisputably, not more than 500,000. The principle enumeration of the population made by means of the Spaniards in 1591, and which integrated the vast majority of the ones tribes, supplies a population of lower than 700,000. (See Chapter VIII., The Philippines 3 Hundred Years Prior to now.)

There are other information too that show us how sparse the population must were. The Spanish expeditions came upon many coasts and islands throughout the Bisayan team of workers without inhabitants. Every so often a sail or a canoe might be spotted, and then the ones would disappear in some small “estero” or mangrove swamp and the land seem as unpopulated as previous than. At positive problems, like Limasaua, Butúan, and Bohol, the natives were further a large number of, and Cebu used to be as soon as a large and thriving workforce; on the other hand the Spaniards had as regards to all over to search for settled places and cultivated lands.

The sparsity of population is also correctly indicated by means of the good scarcity of foods. The Spaniards had so much factor in securing sufficient provisions. A small amount of rice, a pig and a few chickens, were available in the market proper right here and there, on the other hand the Filipinos had no large supplies. After the settlement of Manila used to be as soon as made, a large part of the foods of town used to be as soon as drawn from China. The very ease with which the Spaniards marched where they willed and lowered the Filipinos to obedience shows that the latter were inclined in numbers. Laguna and the Camarines seem to have been one of the most populous portions of the archipelago. All of these things and others show that the Filipinos were on the other hand a small fraction of their supply amount.

Alternatively, the Negritos seem to have been further a large number of, or no less than further in evidence. They’d been we time and again noticed on the island of Negros, where right now they’re few and confined to the interior; and throughout the group of Manila and in Batangas, where they’re no longer came upon, that they had been mingling with the Tagálog population.

Prerequisites of Custom.—The custom of the quite a lot of tribes, which is now somewhat the identical in all places the archipelago, presented some diversifications. Inside the southern Bisayas, where the Spaniards first entered the archipelago, there seem to have been two forms of natives: the hill dwellers, who lived throughout the inside of the islands in small numbers, who wore garments of tree bark and who once in a while built their homes throughout the trees; and the sea dwellers, who were very similar to the present day Moro tribes south of Mindanao, who’re known as the Sámal, and who built their villages over the sea or on the shore and lived so much in boats. The ones were nearly indisputably later arrivals than the wooded house people. From both a type of parts the Bisaya Filipinos are descended, on the other hand while the coast people were totally absorbed, one of the most an important hill-folk are nevertheless pagan and uncivilized, and must be very so much as that they had been when the Spaniards first were given right here.

The very best grade of custom used to be as soon as throughout the settlements where there used to be as soon as commonplace business with Borneo, Siam, and China, and in particular about Manila, where many Mohammedan Malays had colonies.

Languages of the Malayan Peoples.—Aside from for the Negrito, all the languages of the Philippines belong to one great family, which has been known as the “Malayo-Polynesian.” All are believed to be derived from one very ancient mother-tongue. It’s astonishing how broadly this Malayo-Polynesian speech has spread. Farthest east throughout the Pacific there is also the Polynesian, then throughout the groups of small islands, known as Micronesian; then Melanesian or Papuan; the Malayan in all places the East Indian archipelago, and to the north the languages of the Philippines. On the other hand this isn’t all; for some distance westward on the coast of Africa is the island of Madagascar, a large number of whose languages don’t have any connection with African on the other hand belong to the Malayo-Polynesian family.

The Tagálog Language.—It is going to should be a query of vital passion to Filipinos that the good scientist, Baron William von Humboldt, considered the Tagálog to be the richest and most easiest of all the languages of the Malayo-Polynesian family, and most likely the type of they all. “It possesses,” he discussed, “all the bureaucracy collectively of which explicit ones are came upon singly in numerous dialects; and it has preserved they all with very trifling exceptions unbroken, and in whole cohesion and symmetry.” The Spanish friars, on their arrival throughout the Philippines, devoted themselves at once to learning the native dialects and to the preparation of prayers and catechisms in the ones native tongues. They’d been very a luck in their analysis. Father Chirino tells us of one Jesuit who came upon sufficient Tagálog in seventy days to preach and pay attention to confession. In this approach the Bisayan, the Tagálog, and the Ilocano were briefly mastered.

Inside the gentle of the opinion of Von Humboldt, it’s crowd pleasing to hunt out the ones early Spaniards pronouncing the Tagálog one of the most difficult and one of the most admirable. “Of all of them,” says Padre Chirino, “the one which most glad me and filled me with admiration used to be as soon as the Tagálog. On account of, as I discussed to the principle archbishop, and afterwards to other critical people, each and every there and proper right here, I came upon in it 4 qualities of the 4 easiest imaginable languages of the sphere: Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Spanish; of the Hebrew, the mysteries and obscurities; of the Greek, the articles and the precision no longer most straightforward of the appellative however as well as of the proper nouns; of the Latin, the wealth and elegance; and of the Spanish, the nice breeding, politeness, and courtesy.”

An Early Connection with the Hindus.—The Malayan languages come with moreover a considerable proportion of words borrowed from the Sanskrit, and in this the Tagálog, Bisayan, and Ilocano are integrated. Whether or not or no longer the ones words were passed along from one Malayan team of workers to each different, or whether they were presented by means of the true presence and power of the Hindu in this archipelago, may be fair ground for debate; on the other hand the case for the latter position has been so correctly and brilliantly put a tax on imported items by means of Dr. Pardo de Tavera that his conclusions are proper right here given in his the construction is privately owned words. “The words which Tagálog borrowed,” he says, “are those which constitute intellectual acts, moral conceptions, emotions, superstitions, names of deities, of planets, of numerals of high amount, of botany, of conflict and its results and consequences, and in the end of titles and dignities, some animals, gear of industrial, and the names of money.”

From the evidence of the ones works, Dr. Pardo argues for a period throughout the early history of the Filipinos, no longer merely of industrial intercourse, like that of the Chinese language language, on the other hand of Hindu political and social domination. “I don’t believe,” he says, “and I base my opinion on the identical words that I’ve presented together in this vocabulary, that the Hindus were proper right here simply as buyers, on the other hand that they dominated different parts of the archipelago, where to-day are spoken one of the most cultured languages,—the Tagálo, the Visayan, the Pampanga, and the Ilocano; and that the higher custom of the ones languages comes precisely from the have an effect on of the Hindu race over the Filipino.”

The Hindus throughout the Philippines.—“It’s no longer imaginable to believe that the Hindus, within the tournament that they were given right here most straightforward as buyers, alternatively great their amount, would have impressed themselves in this sort of approach as to give to these islanders the volume and the kind of words which they did give. The ones names of dignitaries, of caciques, of high functionaries of the court docket, of noble girls, indicate that each a type of high positions with names of Sanskrit beginning position were occupied at one time by means of men who spoke that language. The words of a similar beginning position for pieces of conflict, fortresses, and battle-songs, for designating pieces of religious accept as true with, for superstitions, emotions, feelings, business and farming movements, show us clearly that the war, religion, literature, industry, and agriculture were at one time throughout the arms of the Hindus, and that this race used to be as soon as effectively dominant throughout the Philippines.”

Methods of Writing among the Filipinos.—When the Spaniards arrived throughout the Philippines, the Filipinos were using ways of writing borrowed from Hindu or Javanese property. This topic is so crowd pleasing that one can’t do upper than to quote in whole Padre Chirino’s account, as he’s the principle of the Spanish writers to mention it and as his notice is somewhat whole.

“So given are the ones islanders to finding out and writing that there’s rarely an individual, and some distance a lot much less a lady, that doesn’t be told and write in letters unusual to the island of Manila, very different from those of China, Japan, and of India, as may well be spotted from the following alphabet.

“The vowels are 3; on the other hand they serve for five, and are,


e, i

o, u

The consonants aren’t greater than twelve, they usually serve to put in writing each and every consonant and vowel, in this form. The letter on my own, without any stage each above or beneath, sounds with a.






l. a.







Putting the aim above, each one sounds with e or with i.





































Putting the aim beneath, it sounds with o or with u.





































As an example, so as to say ‘cama,’ the two letters on my own suffice.



If to the    ᜃ there is also located a point above, it’ll say




If it is given to each and every beneath, it’ll say





The entire consonants are equipped or understood in all circumstances, and so that you can say ‘cantar,’ they write






On the other hand with all, and that without many evasions, they make breakfast themselves understood, they usually themselves understand marvellously. And the reader supplies, with so much talent and ease, the consonants which may well be lacking. They’ve came upon from us to put in writing running the traces from the left hand to the right, on the other hand up to now they only wrote from above downwards, hanging the principle line (if I take into accout rightly) at the left hand, and continuing with the others to the right, the opposite of the Chinese language language and Japanese…. They write upon canes or on leaves of a palm, using for a pen a point of iron. Nowadays in writing no longer onlytheir the construction is privately owned however as well as our letters, they use a feather reasonably properly reduce, and paper like ourselves.

They’ve came upon our language and pronunciation, and write along with we do, and even upper; for they’re so colourful that they be told the entire thing with the most efficient ease. I’ve presented with me handwriting with very good and correct lettering. In Tigbauan, I had in school an overly small child, who in 3 months’ time came upon, by means of copying from well-written letters that I set him, to put in writing enough upper than I, and transcribed for me writings of importance very faithfully, and without errors or mistakes. On the other hand enough of languages and letters; now let me go us return to our profession with human souls.”

Sanskrit Provide of the Filipino Alphabet.—Besides the Tagálog, the Bisaya, Pampango, Pangasinan, and Ilocano had alphabets, or further appropriately syllabaries similar to this one. Dr. Pardo de Tavera has collected many data referring to them, and shows that that they had been definitely received by means of the Filipinos from a Sanskrit provide.

Early Filipino Writings.—The Filipinos used this writing for surroundings down their poems and songs, that have been their most straightforward literature. None of this, alternatively, has come the entire approach right down to us, and the Filipinos briefly adopted the Spanish alphabet, forming the syllables crucial to put in writing their language from the ones letters. As a lot of these have phonetic values, it’s nevertheless truly simple for a Filipino to learn how to pronounce and so be told his the construction is privately owned tongue. The ones earlier characters lingered for a couple of centuries, in positive places. Padre Totanes tells us that it used to be as soon as unusual in 1705 to hunt out a person who might simply use them; on the other hand the Tagbanua, a pagan people on the island of Paragua, use a similar syllabary to this present day. Besides poems, they’d songs which they sang as they rowed their canoes, as they pounded the rice from its husk, and as they collected for dinner party or recreational; and in particular there were songs for the useless. In the ones songs, says Chirino, they recounted the deeds of their ancestors or of their deities.

Chinese language language throughout the Philippines.Early Trade.—Very different from the Hindu used to be as soon as the early have an effect on of the Chinese language language. There’s no evidence that, previous to the Spanish conquest, the Chinese language language settled or colonized in the ones islands the least bit; and however 300 years previous than the coming of Magellan their trading-fleets were coming proper right here forever and several other different of the islands were well known to them. One evidence of this prehistoric business is throughout the ancient Chinese language language jars and pottery that have been exhumed throughout the group of Manila, on the other hand the Chinese language language writings themselves furnish us even upper proof. In regards to the beginning of the thirteenth century, despite the fact that no longer earlier than 1205, a Chinese language language writer named Chao Ju-kua wrote a work upon the maritime business of the Chinese language language people. One chapter of his artwork is devoted to the Philippines, which he calls the country of Mayi. In line with this document it’s indicated that the Chinese language language were conversant in the islands of the archipelago 700 years previously.

Chinese language language, Description of the Other folks.—“The country of Mayi,” says this crowd pleasing antique, “is positioned to the north of Poni (Burney, or Borneo). A couple of thousand families inhabit the banks of an overly winding transfer. The natives get dressed themselves in sheets of material harking back to bed sheets, or cover their our our bodies with sarongs. (The sarong is the gay colored, usual garment of the Malay.) Scattered all the way through the extensive forests are copper Buddha pictures, on the other hand no person is conscious about how they got there.

Moro Brass Betel Box.

“When the provider supplier (Chinese language language) ships arrive at this port they anchor in front of an open place … which serves as a market, where they business throughout the produce of the country. When a ship enters this port, the captain makes presents of white umbrellas (to the mandarins). The buyers are obliged to pay this tribute so as to obtain the nice will of the ones lords.” The products of the country are mentioned to be yellow wax, cotton, pearls, shells, betel nuts, and yuta subject material, which used to be as soon as most likely one of the most necessary quite a few cloths nevertheless woven of abacá, or piña. The articles imported by means of the Chinese language language were “porcelain, business gold, pieces of lead, glass beads of all colors, iron cooking-pans, and iron needles.”

The Negritos.—Very curious is the proper indicate in this Chinese language language writing, of the Negritos, the to start with accounts to be made of the little blacks. “Inside the inside of the valleys lives a race known as Hai-tan (Acta). They’re, of low stature, have round eyes of a yellow color, curly hair, and their tooth are merely spotted between their lips. (That is, nearly indisputably, no longer darkened by means of betel-chewing or artificial stains.) They assemble their nests throughout the treetops and in each nest lives a family, which most straightforward consists of from 3 to five people. They move from side to side about throughout the densest thickets of the forests, and, without being spotted themselves, shoot their arrows at the passers-by; as a result of this they’re a lot feared. If the broker (Chinese language language) throws them a small porcelain bowl, they’ll stoop the entire approach right down to catch it and then run away with it, shouting joyfully.”

Increase in Chinese language language Trade.—The ones junks moreover visited the additional central islands, on the other hand proper right here website online guests used to be as soon as carried out on the ships, the Chinese language language on arrival announcing themselves by means of beating gongs and the Filipinos coming out to them in their gentle boats. Among other problems proper right here introduced by means of the natives for business are mentioned “strange subject material,” most likely cinamay or jusi, and efficient mats.

This Chinese language language business endured nearly indisputably somewhat ceaselessly until the coming of the Spaniards. Then it received an enormous build up all the way through the decision for for Chinese language language food-products and wares made by means of the Spaniards, and as a result of the value of the Mexican silver which the Spaniards introduced in alternate.

Trade with the Moro Malays of the South.—The spread of Mohammedanism and in particular the foundation of the colony of Borneo presented the Philippines into necessary business members of the family with the Malays of the south. Previous to the coming of the Spaniards the ones members of the family seem to have been delightful and peaceful. The Mohammedan Malays sent their praos northward for purposes of business, they usually were moreover settling throughout the north Philippines as they’d in Mindanao.

When Legaspi’s fleet, briefly after its arrival, lay with reference to the island of Bohol, the “Maestro de Campo” had a troublesome struggle with a Moro vessel which had stand up for business, and took six prisoners. One among them, whom they title the “pilot,” used to be as soon as closely interrogated by means of the Adelantado and a couple of crowd pleasing wisdom purchased, which is recorded by means of Padre San Augustin. Legaspi had a Malay slave interpreter with him and San Augustin says that Padre Urdaneta “knew correctly the Malayan language.” The pilot discussed that “those of Borneo presented for business with the Filipinos, copper and tin, which used to be as soon as brought to Borneo from China, porcelain, dishes, and bells made in their taste, very different from those that the Christians use, and benzoin, and colored blankets from India, and cooking-pans made in China, and that moreover they presented iron lances reasonably properly tempered, and knives and other articles of barter, and that all the way through alternate for them they took transparent of the islands gold, slaves, wax, and a kind of small seashell which they title ‘sijueyes,’ and which passes for money throughout the kingdom of Siam and other places; and also they devise off some white cloths, of which there’s a very good quantity throughout the islands.”

Butúan, on the north coast of Mindanao, seems to were somewhat a trading-place resorted to by means of vessels from all quarters. This country, like many alternative parts of the Philippines, has made out of time immemorial small quantities of gold, and all the early voyagers communicate of the gold earrings and ornaments of the natives. Butúan moreover produced sugarcane and used to be as soon as a trading-port for slaves. This unfortunate website online guests in human life seems to were no longer unusual, and used to be as soon as certainly stimulated by means of the business with Borneo. Junks from Siam purchasing and promoting with Cebu were moreover encountered by means of the Spaniards.

Moro Brass Cannon, or “Lantaka.”

Result of this Intercourse and Industry.—This intercourse and website online guests had acquainted the Filipinos with many of the apparatus of civilized life long previous than the coming of the Spaniards. Their chiefs and datos dressed in silks, and maintained some splendor of environment; as regards to all the population of the tribes of the coast wrote and communicated by means of a syllabary; vessels from Luzon traded as some distance south as Mindanao and Borneo, even supposing the products of Asia correct were given right here all the way through the fleets of foreigners; and most likely what indicates further clearly than the rest the improvement the Filipinos were making by means of their verbal exchange with outdoor people is their use of firearms. Of this stage there’s no question. Far and wide throughout the group of Manila, on Lubang, in Pampanga, at Cainta and Laguna de Bay, the Spaniards encountered forts mounting small cannon, or “lantakas.” The Filipinos seem to have understood, moreover, the arts of casting cannon and of making powder. The principle gun-factory established by means of the Spaniards used to be as soon as in command of a Filipino from Pampanga.

Early Political and Social Existence.The Barangay.—The weakest side of the custom of the early Filipinos used to be as soon as their political and social workforce, they usually were inclined proper right here in precisely the identical approach that the now uncivilized peoples of northern Luzon are nevertheless inclined. Their state didn’t embrace all the tribe or nation; it integrated simply the gang. Out of doors of the settlers in one fast group, all others were enemies or at most foreigners. There were throughout the Philippines no large states, nor even great rajas and sultans very similar to were came upon throughout the Malay Archipelago, on the other hand as a substitute on every island were numerous small communities, each independent of the other and ceaselessly waging conflict.

The unit of their political order used to be as soon as a bit bit cluster of houses from thirty to one hundred families, known as a “barangay,” and which nevertheless exists throughout the Philippines for the reason that “barrio.” At the head of each barangay used to be as soon as a main known as the “dato,” a word no longer used throughout the northern Philippines, despite the fact that it persists among the Moros of Mindanao. The powers of the ones datos within in their small areas appear to have been great, they usually were treated with utmost admire by means of the oldsters.

The barangays were grouped together in tiny federations at the side of about as so much territory as the present towns, whose affairs were carried out by means of the chiefs or datos, even supposing once in a while they seem to have all been in obedience to a single chief, known in some places for the reason that “hari,” at other circumstances by means of the Hindu word “raja,” or the Mohammedan period of time “sultan.” Every so often the facility of this type of rajas seems to have extended over the whole of a small island, on the other hand normally their “kingdoms” embraced only a few miles.

Changes Made by means of the Spaniards.—The Spaniards, in implementing their authority all the way through the islands, took away the true power from the datos, grouping the barangays into towns, or “pueblos,” on the other hand making the datos “cabezas de barrio,” or “gobernadorcillos.” Something of the former distinction between the dato, or “number one,” and the standard man may be nevertheless represented throughout the “gente illustrada,” or the additional wealthy, educated, and influential magnificence found in each town, and the “gente baja,” or the poor and uneducated.

Classes of Filipinos underneath the Datos.—Beneath the datos, in line with Chirino and Morga, there were 3 classes of Filipinos; the unfastened people, or “maharlica,” who paid no tribute to the dato, on the other hand who accompanied him to conflict, rowed his boat when he went on a journey, and attended him in his area. This magnificence is called by means of Morga “timauas.”

Then there used to be as soon as an overly large magnificence, who appear to have been freedmen or liberated slaves, who had purchased their the construction is privately owned homes and lived with their families, on the other hand who owed to dato or maharlica heavy cash owed of service; to sow and harvest in his ricefields, to normally generally tend his fish-traps, to row his canoe, to build his area, to attend him when he had guests, and to perform another duties that the chief would perhaps command. The ones semi-free were known as “aliping namamahay,” and their state of affairs of bondage descended to their kids.

Beneath the ones existed a class of slaves. The ones were the “siguiguiliris,” they usually were a large number of. Their slavery arose in a lot of ways. Some were those who as kids were captured in conflict and their lives spared. Some used to be slaves by means of selling their freedom in circumstances of hunger. On the other hand most of them used to be slaves by means of debt, which descended from father to son. The sum of 5 – 6 pesos used to be as soon as enough in some circumstances to deprive an individual of his freedom.

The ones slaves were utterly owned by means of their lord, who might simply theoretically advertise them like livestock; on the other hand, regardless of its dangerous possibilities, this Filipino slavery used to be as soon as ordinarily no longer of a cruel or distressing nature. The slaves ceaselessly similar on kindly members of the family with their masters and weren’t overworked. This kind of slavery nevertheless persists throughout the Philippines among the Moros of Mindanao and Jolo. Children of slaves inherited their parents’ slavery. If one dad or mum used to be as soon as unfastened and the other slave, the principle, third, and fifth kids were unfastened and the second, fourth, and sixth slaves. This whole topic of inheritance of slavery used to be as soon as it appears worked out in minute details.

Existence throughout the Barangay.—Community feeling used to be as soon as very robust within the barangay. An individual might simply no longer go away his the construction is privately owned barangay for life in each different without the complaint of the gang and the price of money. If an individual of one barrio married a lady of each different, their kids were divided between the two barangays. The barangay used to be as soon as answerable for the nice conduct of its contributors, and if one among them suffered an hurt from an individual outdoor, all the barangay had to be appeased. Disputes and wrongs between contributors of the identical barangay were referred to a lot of earlier men, who decided the topic in line with the customs of the tribe, that have been handed down by means of customized.

The Religion of the Filipinos.—The Filipinos on the arrival of the Spaniards were fetish-worshipers, on the other hand they’d one spirit whom they believed used to be as soon as the most efficient of all and the creator or maker of things. The Tagálog known as this deity Bathala, the Bisaya, Laon, and the Ilocano, Kabunian. Moreover they worshiped the spirits of their ancestors, that have been represented by means of small pictures known as “anitos.” Fetishes, which may also be any pieces believed to what possessed her to do it miraculous power, were not unusual among the people, and idols or pictures were worshiped. Pigafetta describes some idols which he spotted in Cebu, and Chirino tells us that, within the memory of Filipinos whom he knew, they’d idols of stone, wooden, bone, or the tooth of a crocodile, and that there were a couple of of gold.

Moreover they reverenced animals and birds, in particular the crocodile, the raven, and a mythical rooster of blue or yellow color, which used to be as soon as known as by means of the determine of their deity Bathala. That that they had no temples or public places of worship, on the other hand each one had his anitos in his the construction is privately owned area and performed his sacrifices and acts of worship there. As sacrifices they killed pigs or chickens, and made such occasions circumstances of feasting, song, and drunkenness. The life of the Filipino used to be as soon as definitely filled with superstitious fears and imaginings.

The Mohammedan Malays.—The Mohammedans outdoor of southern Mindanao and Jolo, had settled throughout the group of Manila Bay and on Mindoro, Lubang, and adjacent coasts of Luzon. The spread of Mohammedanism used to be as soon as stopped by means of the Spaniards, even supposing it’s narrated that for a long time a large number of those living on the shores of Manila Bay refused to eat pink meat, which is forbidden by means of the Koran, and practiced the rite of circumcision. As overdue as 1583, Bishop Salazar, in writing to the king of affairs throughout the Philippines, says the Moros had preached the regulation of Mohammed to great numbers in the ones islands and by means of this preaching many of the Gentiles had transform Mohammedans; and extra he supplies, “Those who have received this foul regulation guard it with so much staying power and there is also great factor in making them abandon it; and with cause too, for the reasons they supply, to our shame and confusion, are that that they had been upper treated by means of the preachers of Mohammed than they have been by means of the preachers of Christ.”

Matter subject material Expansion of the Filipinos.—The material environment of the Filipino previous than the coming of the Spaniards were in as regards to every approach somewhat as they’re to-day. The “center of population” of each town to-day, with its great church, tribunal, stores and houses of stone and wooden, is no doubt in marked difference; on the other hand the glance of a barrio a bit bit distance from the center is to-day nearly indisputably so much as it used to be as soon as then. Then, as now, nearly all of the oldsters lived in humble homes of bamboo and nipa raised on piles above the dampness of the soil; then, as now, the foods used to be as soon as largely rice and the very good fish which abound in river and sea. There were on the water the identical familiar bancas and fish corrals, and on land the rice fields and cocoanut groves. The Filipinos had then a variety of the supply domesticated animals,—dogs, cats, goats, chickens, and pigs,—and most likely in Luzon the domesticated buffalo, even supposing this animal used to be as soon as broadly presented into the Philippines from China after the Spanish conquest. Horses were given right here with the Spaniards and their numbers were upper by means of the bringing in of Chinese language language mares, whose importation is ceaselessly mentioned.

The Spaniards presented moreover the cultivation of tobacco, coffee, and cacao, and most likely moreover the native corn of The us, the maize, even supposing Pigafetta says they came upon it already emerging throughout the Bisayas.

The Filipino has been affected by the ones centuries of Spanish sovereignty some distance a lot much less on his topic subject material side than he has on his religious, and it’s basically throughout the deepening and elevating of his emotional and mental life and no longer throughout the bettering of his topic subject material state of affairs that advance has been made.

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